Header

Skip Navigation LinksReefBase > Global Database
          RSS Feed
Threats - Human

Region     Country
Search Show Tips
Threat

Search Result: 12 records

12
Coral/Fish trade

1 . Fiji (2004)     Fiji
THE FUTURE OF FIJI’S LIVE ROCK TRADTHE TRADE

The aquarium trade is booming around the world and most aquarists want ‘live rock’, which is dead coral rock covered with pink or purple coralline algae and other organisms. Fijis a major exporter to the global aquarium market, shipping 800,000kg of live rock in 2001 to the USA, the industry’s major customer with 1 million hobbyists. The aquarium industry is growing at 12-30% and provides a valuable alternative livelihood for coastal people,
alleviating the pressure on fishing. The villagers break off slabs of live rock covered with light - to dark-pink coralline algae from the edge of the reef, and load these onto bilibili (bamboorafts). On shore, they trim and grade the rock by shape, weight, and cover of coralline algae before air freighting it to the USA. Much more rock is harvested than recorded in the official figures because a lot is wasted. Large-scale removal of live rock can destroy habitats for fish and invertebrates and damage the reef structure, leading to increased coastal erosion. The trade, including live coral and fish, is crucial for some Fijian villages, where the only alternatives are low-skilled jobs on sugarcane plantations and tourist resorts. A third of the 150 people in Malomalo village, just a few hours west of Suva, harvest live rock as their main source of income. They earn US$0.70 per kg, which is divided among the collectors (US$0.50), the traditional custodians (US$0.10), and the marine reserve within the traditional fifi shing grounds (US$0.10). Full-time harvesters collect 150 kg to 200 kg per week, or about 7500 kg per year contributing US$3750 to the household.
Source: Lovell, E., H. Sykes, M. Deiye, L. Wantiez, C. Garrigue, S. Virly, J. Samuelu, A. Solofa, T. Poulasi, K. Pakoa, A. Sabetian, D. Afzal, A. Hughes and R. Sulu , 2004 , Status of Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. . p: 337-362 . in C. Wilkinson (ed.). Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Volume 2. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 557 p. (See Document)

Destructive fishing

2 . Fiji (2004)     Fiji
Over-fishing and the use of destructive methods continue to deplete the resources and damage coral reef habitats. The increasing coastal population and the high urban migration exacerbates this over-exploitation. The use of duva (Derris root) is now complemented with the use of chemical poisons, such as chlorine and fertilisers. Night spear-fishing using scuba and poaching from MPAs are an increasing problem. Bomb fishing has also been reported, although it is generally not considered to be widespread.
Source: Lovell, E., H. Sykes, M. Deiye, L. Wantiez, C. Garrigue, S. Virly, J. Samuelu, A. Solofa, T. Poulasi, K. Pakoa, A. Sabetian, D. Afzal, A. Hughes and R. Sulu , 2004 , Status of Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. . p: 337-362 . in C. Wilkinson (ed.). Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Volume 2. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 557 p. (See Document)

Coral/Fish trade

3 . Fiji (2004)     Fiji
THE FUTURE OF FIJI’S LIVE ROCK TRADTHE TRADE

The aquarium trade is booming around the world and most aquarists want ‘live rock’, which is dead coral rock covered with pink or purple coralline algae and other organisms. Fiji is a major exporter to the global aquarium market, shipping 800,000kg of live rock in 2001 to the USA, the industry’s major customer with 1 million hobbyists. The aquarium industry is growing at 12-30% and provides a valuable alternative livelihood for coastal people, alleviating the pressure on fishing. The villagers break off slabs of live rock covered with light - to dark-pink coralline algae from the edge of the reef, and load these onto bilibili (bamboo rafts). On shore, they trim and grade the rock by shape, weight, and cover of coralline algae before air freighting it to the USA. Much more rock is harvested than recorded in the official figures because a lot is wasted. Large-scale removal of live rock can destroy habitats for fish and invertebrates and damage the reef structure, leading to increased coastal erosion. The trade, including live coral and fish, is crucial for some Fijian villages, where the only alternatives are low-skilled jobs on sugarcane plantations and tourist resorts. A third of the 150 people in Malomalo village, just a few hours west of Suva, harvest live rock as their main source of income. They earn US$0.70 per kg, which is divided among the collectors (US$0.50), the traditional custodians (US$0.10), and the marine reserve within the traditional fishing grounds (US$0.10). Full-time harvesters collect 150 kg to 200 kg per week, or about 7500 kg per year contributing US$3750 to the household.
Source: Lovell, E., H. Sykes, M. Deiye, L. Wantiez, C. Garrigue, S. Virly, J. Samuelu, A. Solofa, T. Poulasi, K. Pakoa, A. Sabetian, D. Afzal, A. Hughes and R. Sulu , 2004 , Status of Coral Reefs in the South West Pacific: Fiji, Nauru, New Caledonia, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tuvalu and Vanuatu. . p: 337-362 . in C. Wilkinson (ed.). Status of coral reefs of the world: 2004. Volume 2. Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. 557 p. (See Document)

Overfishing

4 . Fiji (2002)     Fiji
Stocks of invertebrates such as giant clams, trochus and beche-de-mer have been reduced by moderate to heavy fishing. The highly targeted reef fish species such as emperors (Lethrinus), and mugilid (mullet) species have been overfished in Fiji. The large bump headed parrot fish (Bolbometopon) has been fished to local extinction in most areas, but Greenforce reports regular sightings at Yadua.
Source: Sweatman, H., K. Osborne, L. Smith, T. Grubba, J. Kinch, G. Jones and V. Rai , 2002 , Status of Coral Reefs of Australasia: Australia and Papua New Guinea. . In: C.R. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of coral reefs of the world:2002. GCRMN Report, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. Chapter 9, pp 163-180. (See Document)

Destructive fishing

5 . Fiji (2002)     Fiji
Destructive fishing is also causing serious damage in some areas, through the use of ‘dynamite’ and poison from the Derris root.
Source: Sweatman, H., K. Osborne, L. Smith, T. Grubba, J. Kinch, G. Jones and V. Rai , 2002 , Status of Coral Reefs of Australasia: Australia and Papua New Guinea. . In: C.R. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of coral reefs of the world:2002. GCRMN Report, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. Chapter 9, pp 163-180. (See Document)

Coral/Fish trade

6 . Fiji (2002)     Fiji
Fiji is the world’s second largest exporter of live reef products for the aquarium trade, after Indonesia, and the market is expanding. There are no export limits or management plans for the trade, but these are being planned. An assessment of the impact of harvesting has started with Reef Check conducting pilot field testing of the MAQTRAC monitoring protocols.
Source: Sweatman, H., K. Osborne, L. Smith, T. Grubba, J. Kinch, G. Jones and V. Rai , 2002 , Status of Coral Reefs of Australasia: Australia and Papua New Guinea. . In: C.R. Wilkinson (ed.), Status of coral reefs of the world:2002. GCRMN Report, Australian Institute of Marine Science, Townsville. Chapter 9, pp 163-180. (See Document)

Coastal development

7 . Fiji (2000)     Fiji
As populations grow in Fiji, urbanisation and development expand and pressure on the coastal and the coral reef increases. There are additional demands for land and as a result mangrove areas are reclaimed. There is also a high demand for coral sand for cement construction material. Potential sources of point source pollution in Fiji include: mining, shipyards and slipways, moorings, tourist developments, sugar mills, timber mills, cement factory, litter refuse disposal sites, sewage, agricultural pesticides and herbicides, changing landuse, and various industries (Cripps, 1992).
Source: Vuki, V., M. Naqasima and R. Vave , 2000 , Status of Fiji's Coral Reefs . Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) Report. (See Document)

Sewage

8 . Fiji (2000)     Fiji
Urban areas are served by both sewered and individual wastewater disposal/treatment systems. These individual facilities are inadequate and often discharge overflows directly into the marine areas, streams or storm drains. Inadequate septic tanks often discharge overflows into storm drains during heavy rainfall. In Suva, faecal coliform levels have been found to be high and of concern to public health.
Source: Vuki, V., M. Naqasima and R. Vave , 2000 , Status of Fiji's Coral Reefs . Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) Report. (See Document)

Solid waste/Litter

9 . Fiji (2000)     Fiji
Litter is a conspicuous source of pollution in the marine environment in Fiji. Solid wastes such as plastic bags, metal cans, glass and bottles are often discarded indiscriminately in urban areas, on roadsides, on beaches, in mangroves and in the sea. This litter is not only visually offensive but also dangerous to humans (for example, broken bottles) and the environment (for example, plastic bags ingested by turtles and sea birds). All shores around Suva are seriously littered; the average cover of litter in some areas is >50% (Naidu et. al., 1991).
Source: Vuki, V., M. Naqasima and R. Vave , 2000 , Status of Fiji's Coral Reefs . Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) Report. (See Document)

Industrial pollution

10 . Fiji (2000)     Fiji
A survey of point source pollution in Suva indicated alarming levels of many pollutants due to industrial pollution (Cripps, 1992). Studies found that the major industries contributing to the problem included: a brewery( high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), pH, oils/grease, suspended solids); paint factories (extremely high lead); electroplating (zinc, cyanide); service stations (motor oils); rubbish dump(wide spectrum of hazardous chemicals); slipways (tributyl tin); food manufacturing industry (high BOD, pH, oils/grease, suspended solids). There are also high levels of tributyl tin (TBT) in Suva Harbour (Zann & Vuki, in press).

Industries outside Suva which pose pollution problems include mines, sugar and timber mills. Liquids from the cyanide tailing ponds at the Emperor Gold Mine at Vatukoula are periodically discharged into the Navisi River. Although these comply with WHO standards, bund failure at the site could result in a serious problem (Cripps, 1992).
Source: Vuki, V., M. Naqasima and R. Vave , 2000 , Status of Fiji's Coral Reefs . Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network (GCRMN) Report. (See Document)

12
Side Bar